Quantum Random Number Generator is the device for getting absolutely unpredictable random numbers based on quantum mechanical phenomena, random numbers use cases:

  • Key distribution in classical and quantum cryptography
  • Hash-functions creation
  • Quantum computing and blockchain
  • Electronic gambling machines
  • Machine and Deep Learning
  • Government lottery
  • Computer modelling and Monte Carlo method
  • Analysis of quantum and classical physical theories

Existing pseudo-random number generators have number of disadvantages and in some cases leads to failures

Many program algorithms required a large amount of random data, which led to the appearance of program random number generators based on the use of deterministic functions. Such generators are called pseudo-random number generators (PRNG). On the one hand, the numbers generated in such a way have the features of random numbers, but on the other hand, with the same initialization of the generator, the sequence data would be the same each time, in addition, such algorithms have a repetition cycle.

There are numerous recorded cases of failures connected with facts for the Ising model (Kalle and Wansleben, 1984; Hoogland, Compagner, and Blöte, 1985; Parisi and Rapuano, 1985; Milchev, Binder, and Heermann, 1986; Ferrenberg, Landau, and Wong, 1992; Schmid and Wilding, 1996; Ossola and Sokal, 2004) and related problems (Grassberger, 1993; Shchur, Heringa, and Blöte, 1997; Ziff, 1998; Hongo, Maezono, and Miura, 2010). Choosing a bad seed during initialization can also result in a correlated output (Matsumoto et al., 2007).

The quantum RNG is a type of physical random number generator based on quantum measurements produce theoretically proved unpredictable truly random numbers

At the very beginning of quantum physics, most scientists tried to explain the probabilistic nature of the results of a quantum measurement by the lack of complete information about the initial state but having it we can predict the result. “God does not play dice with the universe” – said Einstein. It turns out that this statement is false, and one may say that “God is the best player in dice”. This fact can be proved using Bell’s tests, which were successfully realized in a number of experiments. In quantum physics, properties discovered after detection may not have existed before it, in other words measurement creates a new reality and does not correct the existing one. Thus, it turns out that the result of the work of a quantum random number generator is completely unpredictable, in contrast to RNG’s based on classical phenomena.

The scheme of our QRNG

Single photons are generated by a low-intensity light source, and then registered with a single-photon avalanche photodiode. This scheme uses the measurement of the time intervals between the detector triggers to obtain random bits. The detector output is a sequence of digital pulses associated with the registration of photons. Further, using a microcontroller, two consecutive pulses are converted into a multi-bit value corresponding to the time interval between them.

Our generator without post-processing reveals new possibilities for modeling applications

All existing commercial QRNG implementations use different algorithms and special hash functions to improve the randomness of the output sequences and increase the speed of the generator. Due to high-precision equipment and special way of converting time intervals to bits, our generator stably passes all certified randomness tests without post-processing. This fact discovers a fundamentally new area of using the generator in quantum experiments and quantum theories testing.